Here is a list of poetry forms, styles, and terms, along with their descriptions and definitions, and some examples:
1. Sonnet - A fourteen-line poem that follows a strict rhyme scheme and structure. The most common rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. Example: "Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day" by William Shakespeare.
2. Haiku - A three-line poem consisting of seventeen syllables, traditionally focused on nature. The first and third lines have five syllables, while the second line has seven syllables. Example: "An old silent pond / A frog jumps into the pond— / Splash! Silence again." by Matsuo Basho.
3. Free Verse - Poetry that does not follow a strict rhyme scheme or structure. Instead, it focuses on the rhythm and flow of the words. Example: "The Waste Land" by T. S. Eliot.
4. Villanelle - A nineteen-line poem with two repeating rhymes and two refrains. It has a strict rhyme scheme and structure. Example: "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" by Dylan Thomas.
5. Limerick - A five-line poem with a strict rhyme scheme and structure. The first, second, and fifth lines rhyme, while the third and fourth lines rhyme with each other. Example: "There was an Old Man with a Beard" by Edward Lear.
6. Ode - A poem that celebrates or praises a person, place, or thing. It has a formal structure and often includes elevated language. Example: "Ode to a Nightingale" by John Keats.
7. Elegy - A poem that mourns the loss of someone or something. It often has a melancholy tone and is written in a formal structure. Example: "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" by Thomas Gray.
8. Ballad - A narrative poem that tells a story. It often has a simple rhyme scheme and structure and is meant to be sung. Example: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" by Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
9. Couplet - Two lines of poetry that rhyme and have the same meter. Example: "Good night! Good night! Parting is such sweet sorrow" by William Shakespeare.
10. Alliteration - The repetition of the same sound at the beginning of words. Example: "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."
11. Assonance - The repetition of vowel sounds in nearby words. Example: "The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain."
12. Metaphor - A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable. Example: "Life is a journey, not a destination."
13. Simile - A figure of speech that compares two things using "like" or "as." Example: "She was as graceful as a swan."
14. Personification - A figure of speech in which a non-human object or idea is given human characteristics. Example: "The wind whispered through the trees."
These are just a few examples of the many different forms, styles, and terms of poetry. Each one offers a unique way to express thoughts, emotions, and experiences through language and can be used to create powerful and impactful works of art.